Nutshells

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Core ideas behind latest and curated research papers.

Cardiology

About 20% of racial disparities in blood pressure control are linked with inequity in patient’s treatment and missed visits, mostly affecting the Black population.

Fontil et al., JAMA Cardiology, 8 December 2021

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Epidemiology

The estimated number of deaths associated with vehicle-emitted pollutant PM2.5 decreased more than 25% in the US from 2008 to 2017 due to stricter emission regulation.

Choma et al., PNAS, 21 December 2021

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Nutrition and Obesity

More than 55% of young adults aged 18 to 25 in the US were either overweight or obese in 2018, compared to around 25% in 1980, representing a jump of more than 2 times.

Barnes et al., JAMA, 23 October 2021

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ImmunologyNeuroscience

Polystyrene microplastics, tiny particles present in the soil and aquatic environment due to microplastics pollution, can cross the blood-brain barrier and potentially cause neuroinflammation.

Kwon et al., Science of The Total Environment, 10 February 2022

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GastroenterologyImmunology

Up to a third of the anti-inflammatory effects of bacteria-derived short chain fatty acids are attributed to endocannabinoids such as anandamide.

Vijay et al., Gut Microbes, 17 November 2021

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Emergency Medicine

The additional administration of vasopressin and methylprednisolone to patients with cardiac arrest was associated with a higher rate of return of spontaneous circulation than placebo.

Andersen et al., JAMA, 29 September 2021

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Gynaecology

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination reduces the number of cervical cancer cases by 34% if taken at the age of 16-18, and by 87% if taken at 12-13 years of age.

Falcaro et al., The Lancet, 3 November 2021

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Neuroscience

The mammalian hairless skin neurons that are present throughout the body affect the organization of brain neurons.

Lehnert et al., Cell, 28 October 2021

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AnaesthesiologyEmergency Medicine

In adult ICU patients at risk for kidney injury, administering modest volumes of Plasmalyte 148 versus normal saline, at fast or slow infusion rates, did not influence 90-day mortality.

Zampieri et al., JAMA, 10 August 2021

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Nutrition and Obesity

Fasting has been shown to be a key component of positive health effects associated with calorie restriction diets.

Pak et al., Nature Metabolism, 18 October 2021

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